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Urban administration and development

Bird eye view of a local market in Phnom Penh. Photo by Roberto Trombetta, taken on 8 May 2015. Photo licensed under  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic

Bird eye view of a local market in Phnom Penh. Photo by Roberto Trombetta, taken on 8 May 2015. Photo licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic

The development and administration of Cambodia’s urban regions has struggled to keep pace with the country’s rapid rate of urbanization. This includes specialized urban infrastructure such as firefighting and rescue services, waste management, traffic and vehicle management, law enforcement, water and sewage, and urban planning.

In 2013, the population density was 82 per square kilometer, and 21% of Cambodia’s population lived in urban areas. This is rising rapidly, however, demonstrated by the annual urban population rate increase of 3.7% between 2008 and 2013, compared to just 1.3% annually for rural areas.1 The Asian Development Bank (ADB) estimates that 30 per cent of Cambodia’s (then) 18.7 million people will live in towns and cities by 2020.2

Cambodia’s largest urban areas are Phnom Penh, Battambang, Siem Reap, Preah Sihanouk, Prey Veng and Kampong Cham. In 2013 Phnom Penh (not including Kandal province) had by far the highest population density of any area in the country, at 2,468 per square kilometer. The next highest population densities were in Kandal (343) and Takeo (259).3

Generally, the rapid growth of urban populations across the country has created several challenges, including a lack of infrastructure and urban services, traffic congestion and lack of parking, increased urban flooding, shrinking public spaces, negative environmental impacts, and a lack of inclusive urbanization and planning.4

This growth represents a challenge for many areas of administration and development, from providing clean water to public transport. For example, while piped water reached 85% of Phnom Penh residents in 2012, urban water supply coverage outside of the capital was still limited to about 50%.5 To 2014, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) had granted US$169.21 million for 21 “Water and Other Urban Infrastructure and Services” projects in Cambodia.6

In December 2015 the Council of Ministers approved a new master plan for managing urban development in the capital over the next two decades.7 The Phnom Penh Municipal Master Plan on Land Use 2035 would establish zones for industry and commerce, zones for residential housing and preservation.

Phnom Penh Governor Pa Socheatvong was quoted as saying that the plan “will aim at developing major infrastructure, including roads, drainage systems, a clean water system, lakes, ports, airports, parks and green space, residential policy…and municipal heritage conservation.”8

Construction and codes

Construction permit laws, which were established in 1997, mostly remain in place today, and the ADB says a lack of commitment to approve new land use plans as well as conflicts of interest demonstrate that Cambodia is not well equipped to cope with the rapid urbanization of the country’s population.9 This affects other areas of urban administration, such as the lack of fire code standards that has affected the ability of Cambodia’s fire services (using second-hand and outdated equipment) to connect to systems in new high-rise buildings.10 The majority of fires attended to in Phnom Penh are said to be the result of faulty wiring.11

Traffic and parking

The capital city’s rapid growth and poor planning are also seeing traffic and parking problems emerge. While both regulations and industry best practice do dictate a certain percentage of parking per square meter, compliance is left up to developers. City officials estimated there were 400,000 motor vehicles and more than one million motorcycles operating in Phnom Penh in 2015, and another estimate states 40,000 are added to the country’s roads each year.12

Waste management

The Sub-decree on Solid Waste Management 1999, places waste management under the authority of the Ministry of Environment, and collection and disposal as the responsibility of individual province or city authorities.13 The country’s largest urban area, Phnom Penh, is facing a number of waste issues: population growth is increasing strain on waste existing collection and disposal methods, which mostly consists of landfill and burning; a growing middle class has meant the mix of solid waste now includes more plastics and less organics; a single company was granted the city’s exclusive waste disposal contract for 47 years in 2004.

While authorities announced a review of this contract early in 2015 following strikes and complaints about rubbish piling up, no announcement has been made on the review.14 Phnom Penh produced 1,20015 and 1,60016 tons of rubbish per day according to government and contractor sources, and it is projected to reach more than 3,000 tons per day by 2030. Studies predict that the city’s current landfills will reach capacity by 2020.17 18 

Fixed and mobile phone subscriptions per 100 population17

2013

2014*

2015*

2016*

2017*

2018*

159.19

189.86

226.41

270.05

322.23

384.50

* Estimates by the Ministry of Planning.

Internet users (millions) 18

2013

2014*

2015*

2016*

2017*

2018*

4.33

6.93

11.09

13.41

16.23

19.64

* Estimates by the Ministry of Planning.

Urban population [http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL]

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2,845,426

2,913,804

2,986,771

3,063,813

3,144,414

Although official rates of urban poverty are lower than rural ones, income inequality is high.  Some neighborhoods are gentrifying, as wealthier residents move in, sometimes displacing long-time lower-income inhabitants.

Updated: 2 November 2015

References

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