Cambodia’s economy continues to be dominated by agriculture, with exports contributing US$758.4 million in 2014.1 More than 70% of Cambodians depend on agriculture for their livelihoods.2 Fishing and fisheries make up another cornerstone of Cambodia’s rural economy, providing an estimated 80% of animal protein in the typical Cambodian diet.3
The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is responsible for overseeing agriculture in Cambodia. The Cambodian government has prioritized agriculture as a key sector for development since it first released its Rectangular Strategy. Version III of the strategy aims to push agricultural investment beyond strengthening rural incomes, into improved technology, research and development, crop diversification and promotion of commercial production and agro-industries.4
This signals a transition away from small-scale family farms to industrial farming. The trend is partly enabled by government lease of large land holdings to private companies as economic land concessions (ELC). Contract farming and private land leases are other vehicles through which industrial agriculture is expanding.
While the government expects the agricultural sector to grow by 4 percent per year to 2018,5 this is a significantly lower rate than the industrial or service sectors. Overall agricultural sector growth is considered weak,6 slowing to just 1–2 percent in 2013–2014,7 and suffering from low productivity, vulnerability to flooding and drought, inadequate infrastructure, in particular irrigation8 and, in some places, declining soil fertility.9
These factors affect different types of farmers in different ways. Cambodia’s small-scale agrarian family farms tend to be rain-fed, utilize native seed, and can afford few inputs. These farmers produce mostly for their own households, with any surpluses sold only on the local market. Their practices are rooted in traditions that are generations old. Like small farmers anywhere they tend to be risk averse and highly vulnerable to flood and drought, pest and disease infestations, and other threats. They are often ill-equipped to cope with new challenges such as changing climate and increasing land pressure. In 2006, the World Bank reported that the average farm size of rural poor families was less than 1.5 hectares of land, while 40% survived on less than half a hectare.10 Their adoption of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, typically without training, direction in Khmer language, or proper equipment, raise environmental and health concerns. Small farmers also tend to have limited access to markets.
In contrast, large-scale producers are constrained by infrastructure limitations and low levels of skilled labor. Some companies have also met conflicts with local communities, regarding land and natural resources rights.11
The World Bank’s data records a downward trend in the contribution of value-added agricultural to GDP, from 37% in 2011 to 30% in 2014, along with a decline in the annual growth rate of the same, to -1 percent in 2014.12
Rice is Cambodia’s primary crop. Despite the government’s “White Gold” policy target for lifting production to one million tonnes of milled rice for export by 2015, actual rice exports for 2015 came to just 538,396 tonnes.13 This was a significant jump from 2014 exports of 378,061 tonnes, however.14 But milled rice exports scarcely grew between 2015 and 2016, with Cambodia exporting just 542,144 tonnes in 2016. 15
Average paddy yield increased from 2.83 tonnes per ha in 2009 to 3.3 tonnes per ha in 2014.16 This was lower than neighbouring producers such as Thailand (3.5 tonnes/ha), Laos (4.1 tonnes) and Vietnam (6.2 tonnes).17
In line with the Rectangular Strategy, diversification into other crops such as corn, sugarcane, cashew nut, rubber and cassava has expanded. The land area of non-paddy crops grew from 210,000 ha in 2008 to 770,000 ha in 2012, and the area under rubber nearly doubled between 2008 and 2013, when it reached 307,854 ha.18
International investments in the sector are becoming more visible. For example, in April 2016 a $360 million Chinese-owned sugar mill was officially opened in Preah Vihear province. The plant has an annual production capacity of 360,000 tonnes of sugar, 50,000 litres of ethanol and 9 megawatts of electricity.19
In 2015, 751,546 tons of fish were caught, representing an increase of 6,236 tons compared with 2014. Of total output, 487,905 tons (65%) were from fresh water, 120,500 tons (16%) from salt water and 143,141 (19%) from fish farms.20
While the government’s research for development planning expects this to increase to 910,000 tonnes by 2018,21 there are also simultaneous reports of falling fish numbers due to considerable pressure from environmental changes and population growth. One study cites predictions of a 40-60 percent decline in inland fishery yields for both Vietnam and Cambodia “in the foreseeable future”.22
Aquaculture is expected to grow quickly, from 143,141 tons in 2015 to 171,000 by 2018.23
Cambodia exports fish, prawns, crabs, and other seafood to China, Japan, Russia and some ASEAN countries. The EU has banned fish imports from Cambodia, citing Cambodia’s failure to implement and comply with international legal obligations. Examples are that Cambodia does not act against illegal fishing by non-Cambodian vessels flying the Cambodian flag,24 and also lacks a legal framework, and effective monitoring, inspection and catch certification schemes.25
The government began to reform its fisheries management system in 2001 by reducing the number of commercial lots, culminating in in 2012 with the abolition of all commercial lots on the Tonle Sap.26 The change was intended to conserve fish stocks and support subsistence fishermen. Some NGOs, however, say that illegal fishing has increased in recent years.27 The government confirms this: officials said cases of illegal fishing continued to rise in 2015, when almost 4,000 illegal fishing offenses were stopped and 181 were sent to court.28
Another challenge facing freshwater fisheries is the development of dams such as the Lower Sesan II dam. Numerous studies have cautioned that dams will have a major impact on fish migration, fish breeding and fish stocks, and that there is little prospect of mitigating these effects.29
Last updated: 31 January 2017
- 1. World Trade Organization. ‘Statistics database’ Subject: Merchandise trade by commodity; Search terms=Agriculture,Cambodia,Exports,2014. Accessed 20 October 2015. http://stat.wto.org/StatisticalProgram/WSDBViewData.aspx?Language=E
- 2. World Bank. ‘Cambodia overview.’ Accessed 24 August 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia/overview
- 3. WorldFish Center. ‘Cambodia.’ Accessed 20 October 2015. http://www.worldfishcenter.org/content/cambodia
- 4. Royal Government of Cambodia. 2013. ‘Rectangular Strategy Phase III,’ page 17. Accessed 20 October 2015. http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh/content/uploads/2013/11/2013-Rectangular-Strategy-III-En8.pdf
- 5. Royal Government of Cambodia. National Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018. Phnom Penh: Royal Government of Cambodia, 2014. vi, 27.
- 6. World Bank. ‘Cambodia overview.’ Accessed 24 August 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia/overview
- 7. World Bank. ‘Cambodian agriculture in transition: Opportunities and risks.’ Accessed 21 October 2015. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia/publication/cambodian-agriculture-in-transition-opportunities-and-risks
- 8. World Bank. ‘Cambodia Overview.’ 1 October 2014. Accessed 30 January 2015. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia/overview.
- 9. Blair G, Blair N. ‘Nutrient status of Cambodian soils, rationalisation of fertiliser recommendations and the challenges ahead for Cambodian soil science.’ Current Agricultural Research 2014;2(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.2.1.02
- 10. World Bank. 2006. ‘Cambodia: Halving poverty by 2015 – poverty assessment 2006’, page 84. Accessed 30 January 2015. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/02/6612976/cambodia-halving-poverty-2015-poverty-assessment-2006
- 11. Cambodian Center for Human Rights. ‘Cambodia Land in Conflict: An Overview of the Land Situation.’ Accessed 21 October 2015. http://cchrcambodia.org/admin/media/report/report/english/CCHR%20Report%20%20Cambodia%20Land%20in%20Conflict%20An%20Overview%20of%20the%20Land%20Situation%20ENG.pdf
- 12. Royal Government of Cambodia. 2011. ‘Policy document on promotion of paddy rice production and export of milled rice.’ Accessed 21 October 2015. http://www.foodsecurity.gov.kh/sites/default/files/Rice-Policy-Eng.pdf
- 13. www.crf.org.kh accessed 2 April 2016
- 14. Ibid
- 15. Chea Vannak, 2017. “Cambodia’s rice exports fall sharply”, Khmer Times, 6 January 2017.
- 16. Chan Muyhong, 2014. “Cambodia rice yields lowest”, The Phnom Penh Post, 30 October 2014
- 17. Ibid
- 18. Royal Government of Cambodia. National Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018. Phnom Penh: Royal Government of Cambodia, 2014. 24.
- 19. Sor Chandara 2016. “Massive sugar mill poised to expand” The Phnom Penh Post, 20 April 2016.
- 20. Ban Sokrith 2016 ‘Govt: illegal fishing on rise’, Khmer Times, 29 February 2016.
- 21. Royal Government of Cambodia. National Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018. Phnom Penh: Royal Government of Cambodia, 2014. vii.
- 22. Ashley Halls and Matthew Johns. 2013. “Assessment of the vulnerability of the Mekong Delta Pangasius catfish industry to development and climate change in the Lower Mekong Basin.” Accessed 20 October 2015. http://cmsdevelopment.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2013/01/22/Pangasius%20 Mekong%20Delta-4b2036ad.pdf
- 23. Royal Government of Cambodia. National Strategic Development Plan 2014–2018. Phnom Penh: Royal Government of Cambodia, 2014. vii.
- 24. Peter, Zsombor, and Simon Henderson. ‘Fish imports from Cambodia banned by EU.’ The Cambodia Daily, 24 March 2014. Accessed 30 January 2015. https://www.cambodiadaily.com/archives/fish-imports-from-cambodia-banned-by-eu-54770/.
- 25. Suy, Heimkhemra. ‘EU ban on Cambodian fish remains in place.’ The Voice of America Khmer Service, 8 July 2014. Accessed 30 January 2015. http://www.voacambodia.com/content/eu-ban-on-cambodian-fish-remains-in-place/1952962.html.
- 26. Fisheries Administration. “Department of Community Fishery Development.” Accessed 2 November 2015. http://www.fia.gov.kh/english/index.php?page=cfdd
- 27. Phorn, Bopha, and Alex Consiglio. “As fish stocks vanish, locals flout law to survive.” The Cambodia Daily, 9 July 9, 2014. Accessed 30 January 2015. https://www.cambodiadaily.com/archives/as-fish-stocks vanish-locals-flout-law-to-survive-63567/
- 28. Ban Sokrith 2016
- 29. Ashley Halls and Matthew Johns. 2013. ‘Assessment of the vulnerability of the Mekong Delta Pangasius catfish industry to development and climate change in the Lower Mekong Basin.’ Accessed 20 October 2015. http://cmsdevelopment.sustainablefish.org.s3.amazonaws.com/2013/01/22/Pangasius%20 Mekong%20Delta-4b2036ad.pdf